The Hillman Stereoview Archive
Views of Old China: Colour Series
3-D Stereoview Cards :: Text 51-100
The Siege of Port Arthur :: Cards 1-100

151. Chinese Bankers on the Streets of Dalny.
The Chinese laundrymen we see in the United States belong to the lower and lowest classes, and it would be wrong indeed to judge of the nation by them. Among the 400,000,000 inhabitants of China there are millions who rank high in culture and refinement, and who equal our own best people in wealth, in customs and in business sagacity. The Chinese excel in accurate clerical work, and the Japanese in Dalny were glad to hire Chinese clerks and expert accountants for their banks and other mercantile establishments. The two Chinese gentlemen seen in the picture belong to the highest class of Chinese merchants and were highly valued and respected by their Japanese employers. The Chinese merchants play an enormous part in the East. In Hongkong, in Singapore, in the Philippine Islands, in Formosa, in Java, everywhere they are among the most prominent and influential merchants, and enjoy the reputation of great shrewdness and reliability. 
152. Raw Recruit with His Baggage.
The soldier walking at the left of the picture is a raw recruit just arrived at Dalny after having crossed the sea from Japan on a transport. He has not had time to take the rags off his gun with which he sought to protect it from the damp sea air and rust. He seems to be warmly dressed, but the cold winter wind of Manchuria is nipping his ear and he shields it with his left hand. Behind him, to the great amusement of the veteran soldiers, comes a cartload of his baggage, enough for a commander-in-chief. How much of it will he be able to take with him into the trenches before Port Arthur? How much of it will he need when a shrapnel from a Russia gun has torn his body limb from limb, or a bullet has plowed through his brain? 
153. View in a Japanese Army Camp.
The Japanese carried small, light tents, easy to transport, and their tents were put up in long rows and laced together, forming long, continuous shelters. They were only places to sleep in and for rest, because the soldiers were called upon to do an immense amount of work during the siege of Port Arthur. Eighteen miles of parallels were dug, six feet deep and twelve feet wide, beside the zigzag approaches from one parallel to the next. The service in the trenches, watching the enemy day and night and guarding against sorties, was very exacting and fatiguing, so that the regiments in front had to be relieved once a week. And day and night the heavy Russian guns barked and roared like a distant thunderstorm, making sleep impossible, except from sheer exhaustion. But the lot of the Japanese was preferable to that of the Russians, who were cut off from all communication from the outside world, and who knew that a relentless foe was closing in upon them with an unerring, systematic precision against which the most heroic valor could not prevail. 
154. A "Shiho" Trading with the Advance Guard of the Japanese Army.
"Shiho" is the Japanese name for small merchant. In our picture we see that this merchant has opened up temporary quarters where he will be in position to receive the trade of the advance guard of the Japanese Army. The place was less than a mile from Port Arthur, just in the rear of one of the foremost trenches. The Chinese and Manchurians are born traders. They are known as such in the Philippines, in Honolulu, in the Dutch Indies and in the English and French colonies in India. At Port Arthur they were not satisfied to sell their goods to the men in the main camp in the rear of the army, but pushed on even to the very front to reach the men whose duty kept them in the trenches, at sentry duty or at digging new trenches for weeks at a time before they returned for a few days of rest, another regiment taking their place meanwhile. The merchants did a thriving business in dainties, which the soldiers eagerly bought to relieve the monotony of their diet of rice and dried fish. 
155. Looking Toward Port Arthur from a Bomb-Proof.
This picture, taken from one of the bomb-proofs in the rear of the fighting line of the Japanese, gives a very good idea of the heights of Port Arthur on which the frowning forts were erected. The hills were so close together and all so well fortified that no one of them could be said to be the "key" to Port Arthur. All were so arranged that each was commanded by two or three others; when one was taken it drew Russian fire from the neighboring forts until it became untenable. When the Japanese had driven the Russians from 203 Meter Hill they were unable to mount guns of large caliber there, or do aught but locate a station from which to direct a final assault. Yet the capture of "203" was decisive. On September 19th the Japanese had lost 2,000 men in trying to take it. They had failed. Then for two months they sapped, and on December 4th succeeded in taking it. It meant the beginning of the end, for from here the shells of the eleven-inch mortars were directed with mathematical precision. 
156. Camp Life of the Japanese Soldier.
A bit of "still life" in camp. Two soldiers peacefully occupied. One ruminating, possibly thinking of his dear ones in Japan, and of the chances of his ever seeing them again, is to efface themselves in the service of their country. They consider it a great boon and he did. The Japanese are not trained to thirst for glory or fame. Their greatest ambition one of the heroes and veterans of Port Arthur? He wouldn't be a true son of Japan if Does he wish to return safe and sound? Does he desire to be looked upon by his friends as privilege to lay down their lives for their country, and parents at the receipt of the news that their son had died in the trenches of Port Arthur put on their gayest clothes and invited their friends to a feast, receiving their congratulations. Is this a higher grade of patriotism than ours? The other soldier is employed in washing his clothes. The picture was seemingly taken without the men being aware of the photographer's presence and intentions. 
157. Wounded Japanese Soldiers Coming to the Hospital at Dalny.
The snow on the wall at the left shows that this picture was taken when the Manchurian winter had set in. It was on the day after the 'redoubt "P" had been taken. Within an hour after the successful scaling of the fort the stretcher bearers were on the slope, searching for those who were still alive among the huddled figures on the ground. They moved swiftly along, turning a figure over, giving it a quick look and dropping it with business precision; to another, dropping it; to another, pausing, out with the lint, perhaps the hypodermic needle, perhaps a sip from the tea flask, the arms of one bearer hastily passing under the arms of the figure, of the other under the knees, dropping it on the stretcher, passing in and out among the shell holes, down the hill to where the jinrickishaws or Manchurian peasants with stretchers were waiting to traiisport the wounded on to Dalny. 
158. Scene in the Japanese Trenches.
This is one of the parallels—trenches dug in the ground, parallel with the outlines of the Russian forts. The Japanese during the siege dug over eighteen miles of these, not counting the zigzag approaches from one parallel to the next. The trench shown in the picture is one before redoubt "P" that was taken in the so-called third grand assault from October 29th to November 1st, retaken at night by the Russians and again retaken by the Japanese. It was here that one regiment, ordered to storm the redoubt, refused to obey, and was promptly sent behind the firing line, while the ninth regiment was led forth and covered itself with immortal glory by taking the redoubt, an outwork of the great Cock's Comb fortification (Keekwan). Ichinobe, the commander, after victory, retired to rest, but was roused at 3 o'clock in the morning. The Russians had retaken the redoubt. Instantly he rushed to the head of his men and led them a second time into the contested fort, which now bears his name. 
159. Japanese Hand Transports Bringing Up Supplies.
This picture shows the method adopted by the Japanese for bringing up supplies to the army before Taikushan, one of the outposts of Port Arthur toward Dalny. Taikushan and Shokushan were two mountains, a mile apart and half a mile distant from the main line of fortifications in front of the powerful Keekwan forts, which extended on a ridge of the hills a mile in length. Before it was possible to attack the Keekwan forts, the two outposts named had to be carried. This task was accomplished brilliantly in the three days from August 9th to 11th by frontal attacks, and it was this great success which induced the Japanese to believe that they might take the principal fortifications of Port Arthur also by assault. Seven days of the bloodiest fighting of the whole war proved to them the error of their conclusions. Our picture was taken on August 8th, one day before the Japanese assaulted and took the fort on Taikushan Hill. 
160. Gen. Tsuchiyas' Private Mess Camp.
For each general and the officers of his staff there was a special mess tent, where the officers took their meals, and over the kitchen attached presided a Japanese cook, a soldier who had talents that way. The foreign correspondents were at times invited to a meal, but only at rare intervals, since the officers as a rule had important subjects to discuss at table, to which nobody could be admitted. The food prepared for the officers' table was exceedingly plain, hardly different from that for the private soldiers, and Villiers, the famous English war artist, entertained the officers occasionally with stories of the different rnanner in which Skobeleff, the Russian leader in the last Russo-Turkish war, had lived in the field. He described Skobeleff as a magnificent type of man, huge, handsome, a soldier to the ground, but fiery, emotional, vivacious, vain, fond of dress, jewels, wine and women, looking on war as a lark, dashing and brilliant. 

161. Poultry for the Japanese Officers' Mess.
This scene is in Dainy, near the building in which General Nogi had his headquarters. This building was the goal to which many of the Manchurian peasants and peddlers wandered, carrying live chickens and ducks, for which there always was a great demand. In this building the details of the great plans for the capture of Port Arthur were worked out. Here worked the brain that regulated and governed every one of the thousands of Japanese arms and heads that planned and plotted, delved and slaved, fought and died for the purpose of tearing from the grasp of the Russian bear the Gibraltar of the East, which the Japanese had fairly won in their war with China in the year of 1898, and out of which Russia had cheated them. The Russo-Japanese war was the direct consequence of this high-handed proceeding of Russia, which Japan at once decided to undo at the earliest possible moment. 
162. The Boiled Water Cart.
In order to keep the efficiency of the Japanese army at the very highest point possible, the commissary department took every possible precaution. There has been no war in which both armies had not to suffer from epidemics of sickness, notably dysentery. To avoid all possible danger from contaminated water, the Japanese soldiers were all under the strictest orders to use nothing but boiled water for drinking, and the result was most gratifying. There was no epidemic among the Japanese, and very little sickness, in spite of the great hardships of the campaign. Our picture shows one of the water carts that carried the boiled water from the stations in Dalny, where the water was boiled in huge tanks, to the various camps surrounding Port Arthur. This service was, like all the other branches of warfare, managed with the utmost care and precision. 
163. Picked Up on the Firing Line.
The Japanese Red Cross organization has set the entire world an example for efficiency and the most perfect medical and surgical service. But with all their efficiency, the Red Cross men were not able to bring in all the wounded. Hundreds of them lay around Port Arthur for days and weeks without any help, without any food or drink, where it would have been certain death for any one to attempt a rescue. The Japanese attacked the forts in parallels, in which they were comparatively safe, but there were times when a dash across an open space in the teeth of the Russian machine guns was necessary, and those who fell during this dash could not be rescued until the Russian fort was finally taken, as the Russian sharpshooters picked off, with unerring aim at 50 or 150 yards distance, every moving body. Even the wounded had to lie perfectly still during the daytime, lest a Russian bullet might end their sufferings. Only at night did they dare crawl a little nearer to their friends. 
164. Russian Drinking Cart at Dalny.
In this picture we see a number of Japanese soldiers around one of the drinking water carts captured from the Russians. The Russians believed Port Arthur to be impregnable. They did not believe that any power on earth could ever oust: them from the peninsula which they had leased from China, and they had spent a vast amount of treasure and labor in creating a first-class modern port at Dalny. When the Japanese drove them behind the forts of Port Arthur, the Russians found it impossible to remove from Dalny all their supplies or all their invaluable implements, so that the Japanese found here a great array of things that they could utilize to good advantage. Among these were the Russian drinking water carts, which were at once taken possession of by the Japanese commissary department. The man in the foreground with the band on his left arm is a Red Cross officer who has just been inspecting the water cart. 
165. Lieut. Gen. Oshima on His Way to the War Council.
Lieutenant General Oshima was the commander of the Ninth Division of the Japanese Army in front of Port Arthur. This picture was taken just as he was about to enter the tent where his staff was waiting for him to pass judgment on a number of problems in connection with the projective assault of October 29, 1904, the third grand assault on the redoubt of the Two Dragons (Ehrlungshan) of bloody memory. The plans were well laid, and officers and soldiers, hundreds of them, gladly died, that their comrades over their bodies might creep on to victory, which was finally won at this point, although one terrible blunder had been made. The east moat below the very parapet of the redoubt was so cleverly constructed that the Japanese had no idea of its existence until they came upon it in the second assault, barring further progress. In the third assault the bamboo ladders which they brought proved too short to reach across, and much loss of life occurred before they could tie two and two together.
166. Japanese Soldiers Cutting Fuel for Camp.
It was with great difficulty that the Japanese before Port Arthur procured the necessary wood for cooking purposes. The country was nearly treeless when they arrived and the few wooden huts of the Manchurian peasants were quickly demolished and used up as firewood. Then the fields were ransacked for stalks of corn and bits of straw, and thus they managed to get along until the commissariat could bring in supplies of firewood from Japan. The corn stalks and straw were distributed in handfuls, enough to boil water for tea, one of the few luxuries to which the soldiers were accustomed. When, as Richard Barry relates, General Yamamoto, on September 24th, fell with a bullet hole in his brain, the whole army went for one whole day without fuel, eating their meals cold, in order to provide wood enough for a funeral pyre for their dead leader. The corpse was cremated on the battle field and the ashes sent to Tokio in a wooden box. 
167. City Hall Building at Dalny.
After the war between Japan and China, Russia prevented the victorious Japanese from reaping the full, well-earned benefit of their exertions. Russia refused to allow the Japanese to take Port Arthur and the peninsula of Liaotang, which were theirs by right of conquest. Why? Because Russia saw here an opportunity to gratify her desire for a port on the Pacific Ocean that is free of ice all the year around, and managed to get a lease of the coveted district from the Chinese government. As soon as this lease was signed, the Russians came in swarms, making Port Arthur an impregnable fortress, the Gibraltar of the East, and creating at Dalny a port with all the most modern improvements. Within four years they erected a modern large city where only a miserable Manchurian fishermen's village had existed, with fine public buildings and a vast array of storehouses. 
168. Japanese Wounded On Their Way to the Hospitals.
Archibald Forbes, the famous war correspondent, predicted twenty years ago that the time would come when armies would no longer be able to take their wounded from the field of battle, and he was correct. Before Port Arthur the wounded lay without help for twelve days, while shell and bullets rained upon them, and if a comrade had dared to come to their assistance his would have been a useless suicide. The searchlight, the enginery of scientific trenches, machine guns, rifles point blank at 200 yards with a range of 2,000—these things have made warfare more terrible now than it ever has been in history. Red Cross societies and scientific text-books on war hospitals and war surgery are all right, but "humane warfare" is a foolish contradiction of terms, now more than ever. "War is hell." The continuous fighting around Port Arthur during the summer and fall of the year 1904 kept a perfect stream of wounded constantly coming into the hospitals at Dalny.
169. Japanese Soldier Washing His Camp Dishes.
Every Japanese soldier carried what he called his "panican" which somewhat resembled the American workman's dinner pail. It had several compartments, and in these the soldier carried his "iron" ration of rice, dried fish, bacon, salt and sometimes a pickle or a little sweetmeat. It is the belief of European and American physicians that the marvelous power of recovering shown by the wounded Japanese soldier was due to their simple diet. The war correspondents all marveled at the contentedness of the soldiers. They never saw a drunken Japanese, they never witnessed an angry dispute between the men or officers, they never heard of any complaint of the men about their treatment or their hard work. And great was the joy when a transport arrived at Dalny which brought every man and officer a present from the Emperor, "sake" for the men, brandy for the officers, and to each a small sum of money, according to rank. 
170. Native Transports Passing Through Dalny.
A transport from Japan has arrived at one of the wharves of Dalny, and the long row of vehicles seen in this picture is going down to the wharf to transport the supplies to the various camps around Port Arthur. As a rule, standing between the two firing lines around Port Arthur, one would not have known that a war was going on. The Russian and Japanese soldiers kept out of sight behind massive walls or in deep trenches, but in the rear of the Japanese lines all was bustle and business. Back and forth from Dalny to the front, lines of transports were incessantly moving. From one to five dozen light wagons or carts drawn by single small, shaggy horses moved along, each guided by a small, dust-covered soldier. They were the strength of the army, the flower of the Japanese youth, clerks, professional men, students, existing on rice and pickled prunes, grimed, heated, menial, and getting none of the glory of the war. They were the unnamed and unknown but life-sustaining commissary. 
171. A Happy Heathen Chinee in Dalny.
This Chinaman was photographed by Mr. Barry as he was hurrying across a square in Dalny in response to a call from one of his customers. He was only one of the many Chinese who made a good living by selling dainties, meat pies and sweetmeats, to the Japanese officers. A number of djunks plied between Dalny and the ports of China around the Yellow Sea, supplying the Chinese merchants and peddlers with such goods as they could hope to sell in Dalny and in the camps around Port Arthur, while others attempted to run the blockade of Port Arthur and do for the Russians in Port Arthur the same service. The man in the distance, with the brown suit and wide-brimmed hat, is the famous London Times war artist. Frederick Villiers, who with Richard Barry and James Ricalton, the photographer, who took most of the photographs for John H. Stoddard's lectures, saw all of the siege of Port Arthur.
172. Manchurian Small Boy Orphans.
These two Manchurian boys, photographed near Port Arthur, were driven from their home by a Russian shell that killed their father and mother. They made a living by tramping from one Japanese camp to another selling eggs. Behind the taller one of the two boys there is another little fellow who was afraid of the camera. But the other two seemingly were not afraid of anything, but were happy in spite of their hard lot. The Manchurians are strange people. Civilization has been at a standstill with them for thousands of years, but they have handsome high foreheads, magnificent, strong, clean jaws and intelligent eyes. In northern Manchuria the women follow the Chinese fashion of bandaging their toes under their feet, even the poorest of them, and it is a wonder how they can do their hard work with such crippled feet. The two boys shown in the pictures were well-known characters in the Japanese camps, where they were given many a meal after pocketing the money for their goods.
173. Japanese Officer Looking Into Port Arthur.
Port Arthur was considered impregnable, and the fact that General Stoessel surrendered does not disprove the proposition. If Stoessel's soldiers had been Japanese, well ammunitioned, well provisioned and ably commanded, the outcome would have been different. The Russians were worn out, their moral strength had disappeared. The Japanese wore their enemies out through their persistence in carrying out the systematic attack planned for them by the general staff in Tokio. With a passion for detail' and a mania for precision, the fortress was plotted and the operations against it mathematically separated into stages. And hundreds of field glasses were turned every day toward the Russian forts, scanning every bit of the glacis and the intervening space, watching for any little item the discovery of which might be of service in the coming death struggle. 
174. Major Yamaoka and Staff Officers.
Major Yamaoka, on General Nogi's staff, spent three years in the United States and studied at Wabash College, in Indiana. This explains his American appearance. He looks as if he had stepped out of an American fashion plate. He speaks English, French and Chinese beside his native tongue, and is eloquent in all these four languages. Before Port Arthur he was recognized as one of the most able officers in the Japanese Army and played a very prominent part in the operations. The Japanese are a wonderful people. Every officer, every private did his duty with a pleasant smile on his face, whether it was camp drudgery or marching into certain death. The Japanese language has not even swear-words. The commands of the officers were given in a low, sweet voice. Not even a swaggering was ever noticeable in either officer or private. 
175. Japanese Army Press Censors.
In this picture the officer on the left is Major Yamaoka and the one at the right is Major Yamaguchi, both on General Nogi's staff. These two were the press censors. Every word of news that left the Japanese headquarters was controlled by them. The Japanese did not allow anybody to send dispatches without their knowing every word to be forwarded, and whenever a correspondent ventured to tell what he expected to occur in the future, that part of his dispatch was promptly suppressed. Victories won, a decided advantage gained over the stubborn enemy were freely communicated, but the Japanese believed in holding back the news of reverses or repulses. What their people in Japan longed to hear was nothing but news of successes, and what they did not care to learn the world need not know. 
176. Japanese Army Reserves Leaving Dalny for Port Arthur.
Port Arthur was taken at a fearful cost. Thousands of the brave little Japs were sacrificed that a few surviving ones might succeed in scaling the parapet of a Russian fort. Hundreds fell at every few yards' approach nearer to the enemy, but fifty out of every hundred were safe and at a given signal they climbed and crawled ten or twenty yards further up, losing half of their men again, and so on, until a bare half dozen out of a hundred could cry "Banzai" as they put their feet on the top and rushed at the enemy with their bayonets. From below the lost lives were to be replaced. As the front line grew thinner and thinner on their way up, a second line followed in their tracks, occupying the places they left behind them, and a third and fourth line followed, so that no advantage once gained might be lost again. 
177. Japanese Officers and War Artists at Gen. Nogi's Door.
This is a picture of Major Yamaguchi, Richard Barry and Major Oda, General Nogi's confidential messenger. The picture was taken at the entrance of General Nogi's headquarters during the fall of 1904, while the siege of Port Arthur was in progress. The Japanese officers were a highly educated, very intelligent set of men, the most striking feature of whom was their never changing courtesy in all their arduous work. Every common soldier in that army was a gentleman, and their officers were paragons of fine manners under the most trying circumstances. When they were asked whether they believed it possible to take Port Arthur they smiled confidently, but never uttered a boasting word, never. All they said was: "The Emperor has commanded us to take Port Arthur, and we must obey." 
178. A Group of Japanese Students.
In the rear of the Japanese firing line there was much work to be done, work for which trained soldiers were not necessary, the work of coolies. There were, for instance, the eighteen eleven-inch mortars, with their enormous gun-carriages, to be hauled into place, and men had to do it, because it is impossible to get a hundred mules or oxen to tug with concerted action. Eight hundred of these students got into harness to drag one gun over the sand on rollers, silent, in the shade of the night, lest a noise might draw a shell from the forts of Port Arthur frowning in the background of the picture. The students were also used to carry the wounded to the hospitals at Dalny on stretchers, and to tend them, or to carry provisions from Dalny to the encampments of the soldiers in the firing line. Their services were rendered free, as they received no compensation beyond their food and a place to sleep. 
179. Richard Barry and His Chinese Boy.
During the long months in which the Japanese first attempted to take Port Arthur by assault, and when they had found out, at a cost of 25,000 valuable lives, that the Russians were a different foe from the Chinese, settled down to a regular siege that lasted from the end of August to the beginning of the new year, Richard Barry was with the Japanese Army, and during all of that time he was busy taking pictures and making observations. He became a very familiar figure to the Japanese soldiers, and being well liked by the officers in command, had excellent opportunities to gather the information after which he had gone. Unable to speak either Chinese or Japanese, it was not an easy task for him to utilize his time to best advantage. The picture represents him in the act of trying to understand some news that his Chinese servant Chosan is bringing him. 
180. Lieut. Gen. Oshima, Japan's Fighting General.
This picture of Japan's "fighting general" Oshima, was taken at the entrance to the hut which he used for headquarters and from where he commanded the Central Division of the Third Corps of the Japanese Army in front of Port Arthur. In this little hut General Oshima lived for three months during the bombardment of Port Arthur, with the Russian shells constantly passing overhead or striking within a few yards. The hut was dug out of the soil, just large enough for a table on which to spread the war maps of Port Arthur, and a chair. The general slept on a blanket under the table. In this hut General Oshima sat one whole night weeping. It was the night after the 203 Meter Hill had been taken, and the Japanese soldiers had been obliged to use their dead and wounded comrades as material for a wall to protect themselves from the fire of the Russians on the neighboring hills. 
181. Japanese Troops in the Front Parallel.
This trench was less than one hundred feet from the sheer granite walls of Keekwan (Cock's Comb) fort. The picture was taken at the moment when the soldiers prepared for the final assault on October 29th, in which they succeeded in driving the Russians out of the fort. The Japanese have a very vague kind of religion. Their ceremonies and rites are very simple, and there is nothing like our Sunday services in church or like our well-defined creeds. But they have an idea of an after-life, and as cleanliness is one of the characteristic features of the Japanese, it is not to be wondered at that the soldiers believed that they would find no place in the Shinto hereafter if they died dirty. The picture shows them at work changing their linen and sponging themselves off as best they could with old towels and dirty handkerchiefs. For more than one-half of them it was to be the last time. 
182. This picture was taken on the road from Dalny to Port Arthur, about two and a half miles from the latter place, therefore within easy range of the big Russian guns. There was a railroad there which the Japanese might have used for transporting supplies from the port at Dalny to the camp before Port Arthur, but a railroad train is too large a target for gunners to miss, and the Russians eagerly shot at every large object that showed itself. The Japanese Army was invisible to them, hiding in trenches and dugouts, but the transports of supplies had to be carried above ground, and the safest manner was the one depicted in the picture. The Russians shot even at these single packhorses in the beginning of the siege, but soon learned that the game was not worth the candle and saved their ammunition for more profitable work. The Japanese soldiers were so used to the Russian shells that they did not even wink an eye whenever a shell came hurtling through the air. 
183. Loading an "Osaka Baby."
Eighteen of these immense mortars, originally built for defending the coasts of Japan, were brought into position before Port Arthur. They were brought by sea to Dalny, carried by railroad a distance of fifteen miles to the end of the track, and from thence were hauled by hand over special tracks laid direct to the emplacements. In some cases they were dragged on rollers through the sand, as many as 800 men being required to haul one of these pieces weighing eight tons. This task was accomplished under fire, in rainy weather, and in the night, to the accompaniment of bursting shrapnels. In each case an excavation had to be dug, the concrete prepared and rammed into place, the heavy foundation plates, traversing, racks and the massive gun carriage, weighing much more than the gun itself, erected and adjusted and the whole of the heavy and costly piece put together with the greatest nicety. As soon as 203 Meter Hill was in the hands of the Japanese they were able to observe the effect of every 500-pound shell that was thrown from these guns and flew in a long curve over the forts and plunged into the body of a warship in the port. 
184. A Native Chinese Transport.
The Manchurians made money during the war. During the first three months the Russians were in the land, and when fighting began the Manchurians were employed to carry Russian wounded into Port Arthur and to bury Russian dead by the roadside for fifty kopeks a day. After the Russians were driven back from Nanshan Hill and into Dalny the Manchurian natives carried Japanese wounded into Dalny and buried Japanese dead in the fields for fifty sen a day. And there was other work to be done—teaming and hauling provisions— and it was all profitable business, for the Japanese paid honestly for every egg, for every service. No Manchurian farmer lost a bushel of grain, except when the chance of war substituted a shell for a scythe. They tended their crop of Indian corn all through the summer, and in the fall tilled the ground, as if there were no such thing as war. 
185. A Group of Japanese Army Telegraphers.
The telegraph played a very important part in the siege of Port Arthur. Not only was the headquarters of the commander-in-chief connected with every part of the long line of the besieging forces that extended fifteen miles around Port Arthur, but as soon as a new parallel fifty yards nearer the enemy was dug, every angle of it was at once made a telephone and telegraph station, where an officer with his field glass on the hyposcope watched the enemy and communicated instantly with his superior. Little bands of uniformed men, carrying bamboo poles and light wire frames on transport carts, and armed with saws and shovels, were everywhere. The officer in the middle of our group of telegraphers is Major Yama-guchi, and the American by his side is Richard Barry. The white band on his left arm marks him a friendly foreigner, lest an ignorant Japanese might mistake him for a Russian. 
186. An Extemporized Operating Room in the Japanese Camp.
The surgical service in the Japanese Army was above all praise. Mr. Barry witnessed many difficult, successful operations, undertaken while the battle was raging, right in the rear of the firing line. One day a soldier was brought on a stretcher who had been shot through the stomach. The same operation was performed on him as on President McKinley. The surgeons cut him open, took the stomach out, sewed it up and replaced it. Two weeks later the man told Mr. Barry that the physicians had assured him he would live. It was a peasant boy, who had lived on rice, fish and tea all his life. He recovered, although his left arm, too, had been amputated at the same time. The picture shows an improvised operating room constructed of wood and canvas. The soldier in the pit is building a fire to warm the room. 
187. Japanese Bomb-Proof Burrow.
This is one of the bomb-proofs which the Japanese dug and in which they lived during the siege of Port Arthur, their only protection from the cold and from the Russian shells and bullets. The bomb-proofs were dug into hillsides and protected around their openings with sandbags. They were necessary, because the Russians wasted hundreds of shells every day, shooting at everything. No part of the Japanese rear ever was safe, although the distance was so great the chances of hitting were one in a thousand. The Russians would fling a six-inch screamer at a tub or an umbrella six miles away. For this reason most of the work of the Japanese had to be done at night, not only in the trenches but in the rear. The Japanese, on the other hand, never harassed the enemy by desultory firing, but waited to concentrate their fire. When they had three hundred guns in position, large and small, they began their work, bombarding the forts, the town and the warships in the port for hours at a time from every gun. 
188. Wounded Soldiers On Their Way to Hospitals at Dalny.
These men were some of the lightly wounded of the fight of October 29, 1904, and were photographed by Mr. Barry the day after, as they were on their way through a Chinese village to Dalny, where they would receive proper medical and surgical attention at the well-appointed hospitals. With all the help to the wounded that modern science provides, can it be said that modern warfare is more humane than that of ancient days? During the terrible days before Port Arthur, when the Japanese soldiers lived in the trenches, unable to succor the wounded, preyed upon by stenches from the dead, until battle in which they neither asked nor gave quarter was a welcome relief, could it be said that they lived "humanely"? Or the Russians, driven into a trap, half starved, night and day expecting a sudden rush of a sleepless enemy, confronted by overwhelming numbers, with certainty of no relief, yet defending a lost hope with lives easier lost than continued? Could either be expected to be "humane" under such circumstances? 
189. Japanese Army Reserves Arriving in Manchuria.
This picture was taken in Fukishimachi, in Manchuria, and represents a number of Japanese reserves who had just landed and were on their way to the front to replace the thousands of their comrades who, under the command of Oyama, Kuroki and Nodzu, were driving the Russians northward, nearer the boundary line of Siberia and further and further away from Port Arthur. At Liaoyang the battle had raged ten days along a front of one hundred miles. The stolid Russians had withstood the enthusiastic onslaught of the Japanese without wavering. Again and again the little yellow men had hurled themselves against the Russian guns and bayonets, only to fall back bleeding out of a thousand wounds and leaving hundreds of dead at every point, until Kuroki succeeded in turning the enemy's flank and compelled him to retire. These reserves were to fill the gaps death had mowed in the regiments. 
190. Tickling the Earth with a Stick for a Plow.
The Manchurian plow consists of a sharp crooked stick, firmly clamped or tied to a beam drawn by a pair of donkeys or oxen. The plowman guides the plow by a single handle and his work is of the most fatiguing kind. He cannot also guide the team, so that a boy is employed in leading the animals. The same kind of primitive plow is seen today in Egypt and in India, and pictures of it were found in the pyramids of Egypt, proving that the so-called semi-civilized nations of this earth have made absolutely no progress in 4,000 years. America has inaugurated the era of tilling the field by machinery. Slowly but surely the Yankee inventions will find their way to Egypt and to Manchuria, and it is certain that the arrival of the steam-plow and the modern harvester will work a revolution of the economic conditions of the countries. What will they be after a hundred years? 
191. In Manchurian Winter Costume.
This picture shows two Manchurian coolies returning from the Japanese commissary in front of Port Arthur, where they have been to dispose of their poultry. The coolies are wearing the thick native jackets, padded two inches thick with wool, which is suggestive of the hard winters of Manchuria. The war correspondents all were unanimous in their wonder at the complete confidence of the Manchurians in the honesty and honorability of the Japanese, who were considered friends wherever they came. The Japanese soldiers never wronged a Manchurian man, woman or child. They were so well disciplined that for the vast army of 60.000 men before Port Arthur not a single prison was needed, not even a guardhouse. No Japanese soldier ever outraged a Manchurian woman, while the Russians in this war, and the Chinese in the war of 1898, had a different reputation, driving many Manchurian women, who are noted for modesty and virtue, to suicide. 
192. A Japanese Trench Guard at Mess.
After the Japanese had learned that Port Arthur could not be taken by a furious assault that lasted seven days and cost them 25,000 precious lives, they settled down to do in six months or a year, what they had come to do. They began a vast system of sapping, digging trenches, parallel to the Russian lines or fortifications, and one always a little closer to the enemy than the one before and connected by a zigzag trenches, so well planned and executed, that even the turning angles could not be discovered by the Russians. Living in these trenches, just wide enough for four men to walk abreast, was a terrible task. The men were not allowed to leave the trenches for any purpose. Here they had to watch and wait, eat, sleep and drink. The filth was sickening, the cold intense, and a bursting Russian shell might at any moment maim or kill them, while it was certain death to show a head above the protecting wall of the trench, only fifty or a hundred yards from the muzzle of a Russian sharpshooter's gun. 
193. Guard Mount of Gen. Oshima's Private Guard.
To be chosen a member of General Oshima's or General Nogi's body-guard was a great honor. Everyone of them had distinguished himself in the front and was rewarded for his exemplary bravery and dutifulness by an appointment to the private guard. About one of these men, Nurimiya, Mr. Barry tells the following story: Nurimiya fought first during the seven days' assault in August, most of the 350 members of his company being killed in front of Fort Keekwan. The remainder was embodied in the Seventh Regiment and fought in the front line against Panlung (Eternal Dragon). During this last attack he, with a few others, lay two whole days on the rocks at the base of the perpendicular wall of the fort, secure from bullets from above, but without food or water or cover. Two days later, on the 25th of August, he was the first to wave his little flag, which every soldier carried in his bosom, over the Fort, leading the hosts of his comrades who made this, their ninth assault in seven days, a success. This fort was the only one which the Japanese held in the main line of Russian fortifications during August, September and October. 
194. A Convalescent's Letter Home.
This picture was taken in the Russian Cathedral in Dalny, which was used by the Japanese, after they had captured the city, as an officers' hospital. The officer is writing a letter to his dear ones in Japan. What is he writing about? Let us peep over his shoulders. He is telling his mother that he is alive and on the way to recovery. He regrets that he will be an invalid, unable to return to the fighting line and to die for his country. And he knows that his mother will mourn over his escape from death in battle. Then he describes a spectacle given by the Russians who one day marched out of a fort, two regiments strong, with banners flying and bands playing, right in sight of the Japanese, parading for several hundred yards. It was a rare treat for the Japanese, who had never seen anything like it in their own business-like army. They looked on like dumfounded bovs, until the vainglorious, pompous show disappeared again behind the fort. 
195. Frederick Villiers Teaching the Japs How to Handle a Fractious Horse.
The islands of Japan, the home of the Jinrikishaw and the litter as conveyances for persons of rank or wealth, have few horses, and the Japs know little or nothing of horses. When the war with Russia became inevitable, they bought up a large number of horses for their artillery, cavalry and commissary, but clever as the people are, and quick to learn, their utter ignorance concerning the handling of horses and mules led to many serious and many ludricous incidents. Frederick Villiers, the war artist, taught them many a trick before Port Arthur, to their great admiration and gratitude. Our picture shows him in the act of subduing an unruly horse, with which half a dozen Japanese soldiers had struggled in vain. In a few hours they will have learned this art, too, and may have improved upon the western ways. 
196. Mr. Richard Barry in Manchuria.
When it had become evident that the taking of Port Arthur would be a longer task than any of the Japanese had calculated upon, when the Japanese chief-commander before Port Arthur had resigned himself to the conviction that General Stoessel would defend Port Arthur to the last ditch, and had accordingly laid his plans for four successive phases of the siege, and when, by the capture of 203 Meter Hill, a point of vantage had gained, from which the firing of the big siege guns could be intelligently directed, and when the preparations for the taking of the two or three most important Russian forts, which still stood in the way of concluding the first phase were finished, Mr. Richard Barry left Port Arthur to find new material for his work in Manchuria, where Oyama and Kuroki were hammering away at Kuropatkin. 
197. Gunner Carrying Powder to One of the "Osaka Babies."
This picture shows a gunner carrying powder to one of the eighteen eleven-inch mortars, which did so much toward reducing Port Arthur. The gunner is hurrying from the bombproof magazine to the gun, carrying on his back in a cannister the charge of gunpowder that is to propel a 5oo-pound shell over the hills into the background and deal a smashing hammer-blow in the frowning face of a Russian fort. For the attack on stationary objects, such as forts, docks, buildings and ships at anchor, the Japanese Artillery Officers were provided with a map of the whole area of bombardment, which was laid out in squares, each square having its own number. The Japanese knew the exact location of every point of importance, having been in possession of Port Arthur at the end of their war with China, and having entertained an excellent bureau of intelligence during the two or three years of preparation for the war with Russia. Their shells were directed with mathematical accuracy to fall upon the particular spot to be hit. 
198. Group of the Famous "Black Watch of Japan."
This is a splendid, life-like picture of a group of soldiers from the famous Ninth Regiment of Japan, known as the "Black Watch." The regiment lost ninety per cent of its men in the furious assault in August, 1904, on the fortress of the Eternal Dragon (Tanlung), one of the powerful forts of Port Arthur. The picture was taken before the deadly assault. It represents admirably the general character of the men, who appeared more like little, innocent, frolicsome, good-natured boys at vacation than like invincible warriors, who could outdo Caesar's legions and Napoleon's guards in devotion to their country and their leaders, who could fight and die with the enthusiastic heroism that alone enabled the Japanese to conquer Russia, for it was not science, not generalship, nor race bravery that reduced Port Arthur, but it was these boys, childlike and unassuming, fed on rice and dried fish, before whose determination Russian pride sank to the ground. 
199. Frederick Villiers, the Greatest of Living War Artists.
This is an excellent portrait of the war artist, Frederick Villiers, with his Chinese servant, taken in front of his house in Dalny. Frederick Villiers is well known to the civilized world as the dean of war correspondents, the hero of Plevna and the Soudan, discoverer of artistic Abyssinia, veteran of seventeen campaigns and decorated by seven governments. He was with Kitchener in Khartoom, with Wolseley on the Nile, with Roberts in Afghanistan and with Methuen in South Africa. He has traveled the world around, sketching, writing and lecturing. His sinewy frame, his bold, kindly eye and above all his manner, a subtle mixture of frankness, assertion end the politeness of the man of the world, readily won every heart for him, even that of the Manchurians, with whom he came in contact, although thev could not understand his language. 
200. Gathering Fuel In the Manchurian Corn Fields.
The scarcity of fuel in Manchuria was one of the problems which caused a great deal of trouble to the Japanese army. Our picture shows a number of Manchurian peasants pulling up corn stalks by the roots and loading them on a wagon, to sell to the Japanese as fuel. Thus the war, terrible as it was, became a blessing in disguise to the inhabitants of Manchuria, who turned many an honest penny by catering to the needs of the invading army. To be sure, the existence of these people was a precarious one. At any moment a shell might be flung at them from one of the Russian forts only two miles away, and might burst over their heads or near them, riddling them with shrapnel bullets or smashing their team. But "familiarity breeds contempt." After a while these peasants became so accustomed to the danger that they pursued their labor without heeding the shells, and the Russians tired of wasting their ammunition on these poor drudges.